State of the Unions

Union Density Bar Chart


Compare the percentage of workers in unions by worker education and employment in public or private sectors. Use the slider bar and drop-down menus to select workers by age, gender, and race/ethnicity.



Union Density Map


See the geographic distribution of unionization rates. Use the slider bar and drop-down menus to select workers by age, gender, race/ethnicity, education level, and employment sector.



**All figures are based on analyses of the CEPR Uniform Extracts of the U.S. Current Population Survey (CPS) Outgoing Rotation Group. All analyses in this report cover a fiscal year—the 12‐month period from July of the previous year through June of the given year. Using this 12‐month system, the authors analyzed data beginning with the 2015 State of the Unions publication. The analysis for 2015 covers the entire 12‐month period from July 2014 through June 2015, rather than only the six months from January 2015 through June 2015. Unless stated otherwise, all years in the report refer to the fiscal year. All results are calculated using the CPS sampling weights. The sample includes all employed (but not self‐employed) civilian wage and salary workers age 16 and over. All estimates in  this report are subject to a margin of error, and the margin is higher for estimates based on smaller   sample sizes, including metropolitan‐level and industry group estimates. We report estimates as statistically significant based on a 95% confidence interval.